Stratégies de défense contre le stress

Sans rentrer dans un mémoire ou un article scientifique sur le sujet, voici un éclairage simple sur les mécanismes de défense contre le stress mis en place par les individus.

Simplement, on peut citer trois stratégies ou modalités de fonctionnement / comportement – bien évidemment brossées à la hache ! Pour faire court, les individus pencheront « naturellement » vers l’un (qui pourra être plus ou moins marqué, tranché) mais en fonction des situations rencontrées, pourront évoluer vers les deux autres possibilités.

1er type de comportement : axé sur le problème

Une situation déstabilisante se présente et notre sujet « spontanément » ira se coltiner avec le problème rencontré. Il est « orienté », axé sur la tâche. Sa démarche : solutionner le problème.

2e type de comportement : axé sur l’émotion

Pour faire très caricatural, imaginez un poussin tout noir avec une coquille d’oeuf sur la tête. Le syndrôme Caliméro ! « C’est trop injuste« , « faut toujours que cela tombe sur moi » etc. Je vous laisse compléter à l’envie ce genre de réflexions / remarques.

3e type de comportement : axé sur l’évitement

En terme militaire (ou pas, d’ailleurs), on parlera « d’esquive ». Un exemple mili, tiens, plus qu’on en parle. Situation rencontrée, un cadre quelconque reçoit une mission particulièrement ingrate, ou  se trouve dans un contexte particulier lui permettant ce genre de réaction. Son ordre ? « Adjoint, prenez le groupe, section, compagnie en compte ! Je vais … (rendre compte, creuser la question auprès de X, etc). Choisir la réponse qui vous convient.

En quittant la caricature, la situation stressante ou déstabilisante peut également faire passer par les différentes possibilités. Chacun réagira en fonction de ses aptitudes, ressources propres, compétences, histoire… Et même s’il existe un « penchant » naturel, le sujet en situation peut se comporter d’une manière totalement différente de ses façons de faire habituelles. C’est qui permet de rencontrer les remarques suivantes qu’on a toutes et tous entendu un jour sur telle ou telle personne : « je n’aurai jamais cela cru possible de sa part, cru cela de lui (d’elle) ». Phrase à entendre tant sur un plan positif qu’au contraire négatif.

Pour conclure sur une note « savante », ces comportements d’ajustement, ces stratégies de défense sont ce que l’on nomme stratégies de « coping » en anglais dans le jargon.

Il est clair que ce billet est quelque peu « vulgarisateur » et « simpliste ». il pourra être étoffé à volonté et outillé plus sérieusement si nécessaire.




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