A propos de motivation ! – 4

En guise de conclusion !

Vu la densité du sujet, cet article fait un survol rapide des auteurs s’étant intéressé au sujet à travers ces quelques décennies. Il s’agit d’une véritable gageure que de tenter de résumer en quelques pages et mots la quintessence de tous ces travaux.  Par contre, peut-on tout de même donner quelques éléments clés sur ce concept de motivation.

 

Il est effectivement difficile de l’utiliser dans un cadre de prédiction du comportement futur du sujet dans des situations données. En revanche, peut-on préciser que du point de vue psychologique, la motivation « correspond aux forces qui entraînent des comportements orientés vers un objectif, forces permettant de maintenir ces comportements jusque l’objectif soit atteint. En ce sens, la motivation procure l’énergie nécessaire au sujet pour agir dans son milieu » (Cloarec, C.).

 

La motivation confère trois caractéristiques à tout comportement : la force, la direction et la persistance. Ce comportement est orienté vers un objectif, un but à atteindre (direction) auquel le sujet accorde une certaine valeur. Cette dernière repose à la fois sur la vitalité du besoin dont elle est issue et de la valeur sociale à laquelle l’objectif du comportement est associé. La force (ou plus précisément l’intensité) et la persistance de l’action vont témoigner de l’importance, de la valeur attribuée par le sujet audit objectif poursuivi.

 

Mais ce sujet de la motivation reste encore largement obscur et tout un questionnement demeure dont voici quelques éléments :

  • Quelles activités engendrent une réponse émotionnelle positive, « dynamisante » et du coup « motivante » et lesquelles ne le font pas ou au contraire provoquent-elles l’effet inverse à celui recherché ?
  • Comment, dans un processus de recrutement, s’assurer de la « motivation » du sujet pour le poste proposé, pour l’organisation ?

 

Nous avons ainsi devant nous un vaste champ à continuer d’investiguer.

 

 

Ressources bibliographiques pour approfondir le sujet

 

Concept de motivationJ. W. Atkinson, An Introduction to Motivation, Princeton (N. J.), 1964

  1. S. Brown, The Motivation of Behavior, New York, 1961
  2. Dembo, « Der Ärger als dynamisches Problem », in Psych. Forsch., vol. X, 1931
  3. Diel, Psychologie de la motivation, P.U.F., Paris, 3eéd. 1969, rééd. Payot, 1991
  4. Freud, « Lettres à Wilhelm Fliess », in La Naissance de la psychanalyse (Aus den Anfängen der Psychoanalyse, 1887-1902, 1950), M. Bonaparte, A. Freud et E. Kris éd., trad. A. Berman, P.U.F., 1956

« Les Pulsions et leur destin » (« Triebe und Triebschicksale », 1915), nouv. trad. J. Laplanche et J.-B. Pontalis, in Métapsychologie, Gallimard, Paris, 1968

« Au-delà du principe de plaisir » (« Jenseits des Lustprinzips », 1920) et « Le Moi et le Ça » (« Das Ich und das Es », 1923), trad. S. Jankélévitch, rééd. et rév. A. Hesnard, in Essais de psychanalyse, Payot, Paris, 1970

Nouvelles Conférences sur la psychanalyse (Neue Folge der Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse, 1932), trad. A. Berman, Gallimard, 1936, rééd. 1952

  1. R. Hilgard & G. H. Bower, Theories of Learning, Londres, 1958, rééd. New York, 1966
  2. de La Garanderie, La Motivation : son éveil, son développement, Centurion, Paris, 1991
  3. Kaufmann, Kurt Lewin, une théorie du champ dans les sciences de l’homme, Vrin, Paris, 1968
  4. W. Leibniz, Die philosophischen Schriften, éd. C. I. Gerhardt, 7 vol., Berlin, 1875-1890

Opuscules et fragments inédits, éd. L. Couturat, Vrin, 1903

  1. Lewin, « Die zeitliche Geneseordnung », in Zeitschrift für Physik, vol. III, no14, 1923

A Dynamic Theory of Personality, New York, 1935

« Intelligence and Motivation », in Yearbook of the National Society for Studies on Education, 1940

  1. Lewin, K. Barker & T. Dembo, Frustration and Regression: an Experiment with Young Children, New York, 1941

« Comportement et développement comme fonction de la situation totale », in L. Carmichael, Manuel de psychologie de l’enfant (Manual of Child Psychology, 1946), trad. M. Brouilly, O. Brunet et al., t. III, P.U.F., 1952

  1. Nuttin, « La Motivation », in P. Fraisse et J. Piaget dir., Traité de psychologie, fasc. V, ibid., 1963
  2. S. Peters, Le Concept de motivation, trad. de l’angl., E.S.F., Paris, 1973
  3. Zeigarnik, « Über das Behalten von erledigten und unerledigten Handlungen », in Psych. Forsch., vol. VIII, 1927.

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