A propos de motivation ! – 2

Pour poursuivre cet article sur les théories de la motivation, je vous propose un tableau, inspiré de celui élaboré par Christine Cloarec.

Juste un chiffre : plus de 100 théories et définitions s’intéressent à ce sujet ! Cela vous offre de belles perspectives de lectures pour investiguer ce concept.


Les différentes théories de la motivation

Tableau inspiré de celui proposé par Christine Cloarec


Théories Auteurs principaux Définition de la motivation selon ce modèle et/ou principales composantes
Théorie des besoins Maslow (1943 & 1953), McClelland (1961), Atkinson (1964),  Alderfer (1969), Schein (1975) La motivation est la résultante de dispositions stables chez le sujet. Ce type de théories considère qu’une tension psychique interne est l’origine du déclenchement du comportement. Le besoin produit un déséquilibre et le comportement vise à rétablir le dit équilibre.
Théories de l’attribution Heider (1960), Rotter (1965), Weiner (1985) La motivation résulte ici de la compréhension « naïve » que le sujet se fait de la réalité qui l’entoure, des raisons qui, selon lui, explicitent les évènements survenant ou des comportements (principe d’instrumentalité) qu’il considère comme désirables (valence).
Théories de l’équité Adams ( 1963, 1965) Reposant sur le principe de l’échange, cette théorie considère que la motivation est le fruit d’une recherche d’équité entre la contribution du sujet et ce qu’il en retire, compte-tenu de ce qu’il perçoit comme étant la contribution – rétribution correspondant à son groupe de référence.
Théorie des attentes Vroom (1964), Porter & Lawler (1968), Lawler (1973) La motivation résulte de la perception que le sujet  a que ses efforts vont entraîner un certain résultat, que ce dernier va se traduire par des conséquences (instrumentalité) qu’il considère comme désirables (valence).
Théories de l’aménagement du travail et des caractéristiques de la tâche Herzberg (1966), Hackman & Oldham (1976, 1980) La motivation est liée à l’existence et présence de certains éléments particuliers dans le travail. Ces caractéristiques contribuent à l’émergence de certains états psychologiques chez le sujet, ayant pour conséquence d’influer sur la motivation et le rendement.
Théories de l’activation… Scott (1966), Gardner (1986), Eccles & Wigfield (1995), Brophy (1999) La motivation est liée à la stimulation de l’attention. Cette dernière est optimale lorsque la tâche est moyennement difficile, c’est-à-dire lorsque la probabilité de succès  et la valeur du succès escompté est le plus élevé.
Théories des objectifs Drucker (1954), Locke (1968), Locke & Latham (1990) Le comportement est intentionnel. La stimulation à agir dans un sens résulte en premier lieu de l’existence d’un objectif à poursuivre. La motivation et la performance en particulier vont être influencées par la nature des objectifs (clarté, niveau de difficulté, spécificité), la valeur du but pour le sujet (niveau d’attraction et d’engagement), la façon suivant elles sont déterminées (assignation, participation) et l’effet de la progression vers l’atteinte de l’objectif (feed-back).
Théories behavioristes Skinner (1974) Le comportement est le résultat de sa conséquence. La motivation est un apprentissage associatif résultant de l’appa- rition d’une conséquence positive à la suite d’un comportement donné. L’absence de renforcement ou un renforcement négatif devrait conduire à la cessation ou à l’évitement du comportement.

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