Stress – Coping – Stratégies d’ajustement – 6

Suite et avant-denier billet de cet article !

Coping, déterminants & évaluation

 

Le coping est un processus dynamique, changeant en fonction des situations et de la manière dont elles sont évaluées par le sujet. La manière de s’y confronter est appréhendée très différemment selon les auteurs. Pour certains, les déterminants du coping, de la manière dont s’effectue l’évaluation, sont dispositionnels. Il existerait des styles de coping propre à chaque sujet. Cette approche, considérant le coping comme un processus adaptatif comme les autres, ouvre la voie de recherches transversales sur le sujet (par rapport aux stratégies de coping tant sur  leur généralité que sur leur stabilité). L’évaluation des situations serait dès lors impactée, influencée par les antécédents psychosociaux du sujet (cognitifs et conitifs : croyances, motivations, endurance – Kosaba (1982), consistance temporelle (Mac Crae, 1992 ; Vollrath, 1995)).

Pour d’autres auteurs, le coping serait déterminé par les caractéristiques situationnelles ( type et nature du problème rencontré, possibilité de contrôle…). En fonction de l’évaluation primaire de l’évènement, un choix de stratégie de coping sera effectué (Mc Crae, 1984). En d’autres termes, en fonction de la situation, de sa contrôlabilité (objective et subjective), le sujet tentera ou non de gérer ses problèmes émotionnels, de se focaliser ou non sur le problème pour le « résoudre ».

On voit ici que se succèdent des séquences dans le déroulement du processus de coping : en fonction des antécédents personnels, environnementaux, il y a évaluation primaire puis secondaire, avec mise en œuvre des stratégies de coping et la production d’effets, entraînant ou pas des rétroactions en boucle avec des réévaluations le cas échéant.

Ces discussions amènent alors se poser la question de l’évaluation du coping et des outils utilisés. Il en existe un certain nombre mais ceux qui sont les plus utilisés, dont les qualités psychométriques sont les plus satisfaisantes et disponibles en langue française sont, en autres, le CISS (ou Coping Inventory For Stressful Situations) de Endler et Parker (1990) et la WCC-R de Vitaliano (1985). La CISS a été adapté en français et validée par Rolland (1998).

A demain pour la conclusion

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